Nov 28, 2016 for that, we look to restoration ecology. Reclamation of degraded land through forestry practices. Soil reclamation of abandoned mine land by revegetation. The result is a loss of land productivity with impacts on livelihoods and the.
Pdf the role of mycorrhiza in the reclamation of degraded. If a smaller share of pledged land were devoted to bioenergy, and crops were instead grown on the most degraded land, the yield would be much lower. Reclamation of degraded land at regional level and conversion. The aerbased data can be used to simulate abiotic stressed land resources availability, use and production potentials.
Soil conservation for rehabilitation and revegetation of mine degraded land. Whatever the type of degradation, a common characteristic of degraded lands is that their productivity is almost. One, the occurrence of volcanic eruptions and earthquake waves vibrations. Poonia3 1, 3 department of zoology, faculty of science, jai narain vyas university,jodhpur, india342011.
Degraded by water erosion 1,094 56 degraded by wind erosion 549 28 degraded by soil structural damage 83. In turn, unsustainable land use is driving land degradation. Restoring and protecting land requires involving many different stakeholders to codesign solutions that are socially, economically and environmentally sustainable. In all but the most arid regions of brazil, the revegetation of subsoils that have been exposed by mining activities, land levelingmoving for roads and construction sites or erosion, will result in the. It thus covers the various forms of soil degradation. Land degradation is the blanket term usually used to describe a number of land and soil degradation issues such as soil contamination, soil erosion, desertification, and more. Reclamation of chemically degraded soils springerlink.
Impacts of climaterelated land degradation on poverty and livelihoods. Chapter 2 types of land degradation food and agriculture. However, the physical cause of land degradation is commonly a reduction in soil quality. Minimizing the amount of land excavation and alteration during mining operation yields a cost benefit as well as lessening the impact to the environment. The methods for land reclamation are various, including physical, chemical and biological.
Trees, shrubs, creepers, and herbs can be used to reclaim degraded land, but the best species are. Since it is inevitable to have various mutual associates i. Essentially, land reclamation emanates from either of the followings. Pdf prevention of the advance of degradation and the reclamation. Pdf reclamation of degraded land through forestry practices.
Chapter 10 mitigation, reclamation, restoration and recovery. Restoring degraded landscapes water, land and ecosystems. Soil conservation for rehabilitation and revegetation of. Reclaiming and restoring lands degraded from mining. For example, chemicals or oil may be present and need to be addressed prior to restoration through removal, cleanup, or remediation of the land. Draining of submerged wetlands is often used to reclaim land for agricultural use. The soil integrates a variety of important processes involving vegetation growth, overland flow of water, infiltration, land use and land management. Unfortunately, a great deal of this land has been degraded by overuse, and other land is at risk. The land reclaimed is known as reclamation ground or land fill in some jurisdictions, including parts of the united states, the term reclamation can refer to returning disturbed lands to an. Reclamation of degraded cocoa lands using albizia zygia. The productivity of some land has declined by 50% due to soil erosion and desertification of the world. For example, safety hazards may include unstable embankments or damaged infrastructure due to land subsidence. Rehabilitation, restoration and reclamation measures and. Land reclamation uses the same process, which is sped up.
Rehabilitation of degraded forests to improve livelihoods of poor farmers in south china editor liu dachang editorial board zhu zhaohua, cai mantang, liu dachang and john turnbull caf degradation of forests and forest lands is a problem in many parts of the world and is particularly serious in south china. Even as pressure grows to boost agricultural production, another 12 million ha are lost each year due to poor soil and water management and other unsustainable farming practices zucca et al. Reclaiming and restoring lands degraded from mining research issue. Review article frankia and actinorhizal plants for. Irena 2017, bioenergy from degraded land in africa. Salinized soils can be restored to productive use, although at a high cost, through salinity control and reclamation projects. Use of frankia and actinorhizal plants for degraded lands reclamation. Soils have become degraded in locations where farmers have cleared perennial vegetation to grow crops and graze animals, exposing the soil to erosion by wind and water. Sustainable and technical potential under bonn challenge pledges, international renewable energy agency, abu dhabi. Reclamation efforts may be concerned with the improvement of rainfalldeficient areas by irrigation, the removal of detrimental constituents from salty or alkali lands, the diking and draining of tidal. The bioreclamation of degraded lands bdl system was developed by the international crops. Therefore, using organic byproducts for soil reclamation activities on national forests may provide an opportunity to increase soil cover and productivity, and decrease restoration costs. Studies related to the beneficial role of frankia on the establishment of actinorhizal plants in degraded soils are scarce. Millions of men and women depend on agricultural land for their livelihoods.
It has been reported that association of soil microbes especially the nitrogen. Soil degradation is, in itself, an indicator of land degradation. Use of frankia and actinorhizal plants for degraded lands reclamation nathaliediagne, 1,2,3 karthikeyanarumugam, 3 mariamangom, 1,2,4 mathishnambiarveetil, 3 claudinefranche, 5 krishnakumarnarayanan, 3 andlaurentlaplaze 1,2,5 laboratoire mixte international adaptation des plantes et microorganismes associ. Large swathes of the sahel region, which were once covered by grasslands, savannah, woodlands and scrub, suffer from land degradation. School of agriculture and forest sciences, university of wales bangor, bangor, gwynedd ll57 2uw, uk. Search for library items search for lists search for contacts search for a library. Bioreclamation converting degraded lateritic soils into. Land reclamation, usually known as reclamation, and also known as land fill not to be confused with a landfill, is the process of creating new land from oceans, seas, riverbeds or lake beds. This chapter mainly demonstrates the significant causes and types of land degradation for possible sustainable restoration strategies using. Rehabilitation and greening of minedegraded farmland. Rehabilitation and greening of minedegraded farmland areas. Section 403 prioritizes reclamation according to public health, safety, and environmental hazards. Land degradation is the temporary or permanent lowering of the productive capacity of land unep, 1992b.
Rehabilitation of degraded lands in watersheds tk sreedevi 1, suhas p wani, m osman 2 and shailendra tiwari3 1international crops research institute for the semiarid tropics icrisat patancheru 502 324, andhra pradesh, india 2central research institute for dryland agriculture crida santoshnagar, hyderabad 500 069, andhra pradesh, india. Open pit mining, degraded mining land, renewable energ y, short rotation, energy crops, biofuels. Nitrogenfixing legume tree species for the reclamation of. This chapter provides an insight into how mycorrhizal fungi might play a role in reclamation and revegetation of degraded lands in arid regions. Coal is the primary source of energy and its ever increasing demand is behind the everincreasing mining activity in areas with coal deposits. Using organic amendments to restore soil physical and. There are basically two types of coastal reclamation. Rehabilitation of degraded forests to improve livelihoods. Reclamation of abandoned mines and brick kilns may yield some much required land. Land reclamation is defined as the gain of land from the sea, or wetlands, or other water bodies, and restoration of productivity or use to lands that have been degraded by human activities or impaired by natural phenomena glossary of environment statistics, 1997. The objectives of restoring degraded land is common to all restorative projects. Mar 02, 2020 land and soil are some of the most important resources we have on earth.
The cost for reclamation of degraded land using old methods is huge, but far cheaper, using new biological methods. It implies restoring the land to a form and productivity that is useful and inconformity with a prior land use. It is viewed as any change or disturbance to the land perceived to be deleterious or undesirable. Agriculture, ecosystems and environment 88, 169 174. Degraded lands biological reclamation using modern methods of stimulating the growth of selected varieties of willows salix sp. Irp on land restoration, ecosystem resilience and their contributions to poverty eradication iccdcopcst4 to encourage the development and implementation of specific rehabilitation, restoration and reclamation measures and practices in degraded lands spi approach to this objective. Chapter 7 describes detailed distribution of area of the various categories of degraded and wastelands in 20 aers. Presently about 70% of coal mining is being done by open cast methods. Onethird to half of the worlds agricultural land was in a degraded state in 2010, and a quarter was severely degraded dubois, 2011. The land reclaimed is known as reclamation ground or land fill. Monitoring, prediction and assessment of environmental damage in mining areas subsidence land reclamation and ecological restoration soil, vegetation and biological diversity mining methods and measures for minimization of land and environmental damage solid wastes and amd treatment. Vegetation or revegetation is a chief biological measure, but the key is choosing the right species. The ministry of forestry and land reclamation mflr is composed of three line departments, which are forestry development, range resources management and soil and water conservation. Land reclamation and protection of environment from the effect of coal mining operation.
Read download land restoration and reclamation pdf pdf. The use of n 2fixing legume tree species for reclamation of severely degraded lands is a technique that can be applied in several situations. Land degradation is a process in which the value of the biophysical environment is affected by a combination of humaninduced processes acting upon the land. Haigh encyclopedia of life support systems eolss total agricultural area 8,735 22 total area of degraded land 1,965 100% from which. The simplest method of land reclamation involves simply filling the area with large amounts of heavy rock andor cement, then filling with clay and soil until the desired height is reached. The term land reclamation can be used in two main ways, to describe actions undertaken by humans to reclaim land from its natural state so that it can be put to some particular use, and to describe ways of restoring ecosystems that have been degraded by human actions. Mining operations in the eastern united states have heavily degraded extensive areas of land, especially in west virginia. Land reclamation issues in the mineralised areas of nigeria this term land reclamation refers to a conscious effort at wrestling back areas of wasted parcel of land either by nature or man. The process we follow in restoration degraded lands or wastelands is called land reclamation. Pdf during the past few decades, global population is increasing at an exponential rate. So, its important to learn how landsoil is being used, degraded, and conservedprotected. Reclamation always may not be a singlephase operation. Acknowledgements this report is based on a thesis submitted to utrecht university by tijmen van loon.
The ministry is mandated to forge ahead planning and implementation of various interventions in a comprehensive manner. Land reclamation, the process of improving lands to make them suitable for a more intensive use. The condition of the soil is one of the best indicators of land degradation. Pdf degraded lands biological reclamation using modern. In total, onethird of the worlds population lives in drylands where land degradation is reducing food supplies, biodiversity, water quality and soil fertility. Reclamation of degraded landscape due to open pit coal. Review article frankia and actinorhizal plants for degraded. Further investigation could clarify which degraded land is most likely to be selected for bioenergy plantations. Land reclamation is the process of creating new land from the sea. A request for unccd leadership in addressing land degradation. Or land reclamation, usually known as reclamation, and also known as land fillnot to be confused with a landfill, is the process of creating new land from ocean, riverbeds, or lake beds. What are the methods used in reclamation of wastelands.1010 730 1371 532 1410 1592 1471 1464 1518 112 33 389 1093 238 167 16 203 1273 527 919 668 975 748 1066 1294 119 1063 350 692